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Number Of Forecasts On The Upcoming Future For PF-562271

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Pressbox (Press Release) - Birth Defects Research (Part C) 99:24�C44, 2013. ? 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ""Craniofacial microsomia (CFM) is a congenital condition characterized by microtia and mandibular underdevelopment. Healthcare databases and birth defects surveillance programs could be used to improve knowledge of CFM. However, no specific International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code exists for this condition, which makes standardized data collection challenging. Our aim was to evaluate the validity of existing ICD-9-CM codes to identify individuals with CFM. Study sample eligibility criteria were developed by an expert panel and matched to 11 ICD-9-CM codes. We queried hospital discharge data from two craniofacial centers and identified a total of 12,254 individuals AZD6738 who had ��1 potentially CFM-related code(s). We reviewed all (n = 799) medical records identified at the University of North Carolina (UNC) and 500 randomly selected records at Seattle Children's Hospital (SCH). Individuals were classified as a CFM case or non-case. Thirty-two individuals (6%) at SCH and 93 (12%) at UNC met the CFM eligibility criteria. At both centers, 59% of cases and 95% of non-cases had only one code assigned. Belnacasan At both centers, the most frequent codes were 744.23 (microtia), 754.0 and 756.0 (nonspecific codes), and the code 744.23 had a positive predictive value (PPV)>80% and sensitivity>70%. The code 754.0 had a sensitivity of 3% (PPV <1%) at SCH and 36% (PPV = 5%) at UNC, whereas 756.0 had a sensitivity of 38% (PPV = 5%) at SCH and 18% (PPV = 26%) at UNC. These findings suggest the need for a specific CFM code to facilitate CFM surveillance and research. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2012. ? 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ""BACKGROUND: Ethanol is a teratogen that affects numerous developmental processes in the nervous system, which includes development and survival of GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. Possible molecular mechanisms accounting for ethanol's effects on nervous system development include perturbed fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. In zebrafish, forebrain GABAergic neuron development is dependent on Fgf19 and Shh signaling. The present study was conducted check details to test the hypothesis that ethanol affects GABAergic and glutamatergic neuron development by disrupting Fgf, Shh, and agrin function. METHODS: Zebrafish embryos were exposed to varying concentrations of ethanol during a range of developmental stages, in the absence or presence of morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) that disrupt agrin or Shh function. In situ hybridization was used to analyze glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD1) gene expression, as well as markers of glutamatergic neurons. RESULTS: Acute ethanol exposure results in marked reduction in GAD1 gene expression in forebrain and hindbrain, and reduction of glutamatergic neuronal markers in hindbrain.

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